Wednesday, June 10, 2020

Postpartum Depression Critical Analysis - Free Essay Example

I selected postpartum depression (PPD) for my critical analysis paper because I wanted to increase my knowledge and awareness surrounding PPD. While I participated in the direct care of many individuals at high risk for PPD, the patient I selected for my critical analysis was a case that surprised me, as I felt she was not given the holistic care that she needed. My selected patient was a 38-year-old, G3P1111, who had a planned cesarean birth at 37 weeks 1-day gestation. Relevant medical history included a current diagnosis of major depression without treatment due to pregnancy, as well as a history of stillbirth in the third trimester and a traumatic past pregnancy due to preeclampsia and pelviectasis. The patient denied substance use during pregnancy, was currently employed as a teacher and had an intact support system. The patient had given birth at 0535 the day prior and was quite fatigued throughout the bedside report and morning assessment from lack of sleep. During bedside report, the night nurse for the newborn, the float pool nurse for the mother, the oncoming nurse, and I were all cramped inside the patients room along with the spouse and the newborn. Each nurse exchanged pertinent information and the oncoming nurse asked the patient what concerns she had for the day. The mother then discussed, in front of all us, her frustration with her lack of breastmilk production and hopelessness with the breastfeeding process. The nurse encouraged the mother to continue breastfeeding and suggested addressing the problem after the mother had some rest. After leaving the room, the nurses discussed how she was a difficult patient and was going to be trouble for the day. An hour later, the patients physical health was assessed. The nurse again asked the mother again if she had any concerns or questions and the mother replied just as before, expressing frustration with the lack of progress amidst two prior lactation consults and bedside education from multiple nurses. She refused another lactation consult out of exasperation. The nurse did not assess psychology health at that time and instead encouraged self-care and suggested ways the spouse could help ease some stress. Later, the nurse mentioned she was worried about the mom due to her anxiety and lack of bondi ng with the newborn. This assessment surprised me, as the nurse had not seemed empathetic during conversations with the patient. As far as I observed, the nurses concern was not documented or discussed with the treatment team. Later that day, the nurse had a conversation with the lactation consultant about mom giving up on breastfeeding, but I perceived the discussion to be one of complaint rather than concern. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was provided to the patient and completed. There was no discussion of the purpose of the EPDS or review of warning signs and symptoms of PPD. The only education provided concerned self-care, newborn care, and breast feeding. The nurse provided the patient with the postpartum discharge packet which included A New Beginning: Your Personal Guide to Postpartum Care. This packet contained a section on PPD, including warning signs and what necessitates the need for treatment. However, the packet did not include a printout for local psychosocial support options, although support resources for breast feeding were included. Literature Review The Association for Womens Health and Neonatal Nursing (AWHONN) released a position statement in 2015 that advises any health care facility serving women, mothers, and newborns to require policies surrounding patient education and screening for PPD. Due to the fact that health care providers, especially nurs es, play a key role in PPD screening and intervention, AWHONN also suggests appropriate education, training, and referral resources are provided for staff. Not unlike general mental health disorders, PPD is diagnosed on a continuum, ranging from mild to severe. Signs and symptoms of PPD include baby blues that are more severe and last for more than a week (sad, anxious, or overwhelmed feelings, crying spells, loss of appetite, difficulty sleeping) and thoughts of causing harm to self or baby or lack of interest in the baby (Alderman, 2016, p. 749). Mild cases of PPD can be easily overlooked, as the symptoms can reflect what most individuals expect from parenthood. While severe cases of PPD can put the lives of both the mother and the baby at risk, even mild cases of PPD can have a lasting effect on the womans health, her ability to connect with her child, her relationship with her partner, and her childs long-term health and development (AWHONN, 2015, p. 687). Symptoms of PPD may present for up to ten years after diagnosis, placing the women at increased risk for infanticide and non-compliance with future pediatric care. Potential adverse effects for children of those affected with moderate to severe PPD include increased risk for behaviour al problems by age 3-5 years, and lower mathematics grades and depression during adolescence (Meltzer-Brody et al., 2018, p.1068). The long-lasting adverse impact that PPD can have both mother and child highlight the imperative need for early intervention and rapid-acting treatment. Furthermore, nurses are a vital part of the intervention process, as they able to help encourage, assess, screen, educate, and provide resources throughout the spectrum of pregnancy. AWHONN recommends that nurses should encourage an open environment for patients to verbalize their fears and concerns surrounding pregnancy (2015). By providing a judgment-free zone, and taking care not to dismiss or misattribute symptoms, women are more likely to open up and gain more from the intervention (Hadfield Wittkowski, 2017, p. 733). At this time, it is important to focus on the woman rather than the infant to avoid the perception that their needs have been overlooked (Hadfield Wittkowski, 2017). Secondly, nurses should acquire a detailed patient history upon admission and provide a thorough assessment for PPD during each stage of the pregnan cy. In order to provide an accurate assessment, nurses must first be aware of risk factors for PPD as well as presenting signs and symptoms (AWHONN, 2015). Common risk factors include prenatal depression, prenatal anxiety, child care pressure, infant temperament, life stress, lack of social support, single marital status, marital dissatisfaction, history of depression, postpartum blues, low self-esteem, low socioeconomic status, unwanted and pregnancy (Kim Dee, 2018, p. 23) It is important to assess for potential post-traumatic stress due to traumatic childbirth, reviewing high levels of medical intervention during labor, long and painful labors, or a perceived lack of support (AWHONN, 2015, p.687). Symptoms of PPD. One of the most concrete nursing interventions for PPD is screening throughout, pre, intra, and postnatal visits. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is the most widely used tool in the prediction of PPD. Other tools used alongside the EPDS include the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised (PDPI-R) which quantify PPD risk factors (McCarter-Spaulding Shea, 2016, p. 3). A deficit in knowledge concerning PPD limits mothers and their support system from recognizing symptoms, decreasing stigma, and accessing treatment. To help overcome this barrier, nurses should include education for patients and families on self-monitoring for symptoms of PPD at various stages (Hadfield Wittkowski, 2017). McCarter-Spaulding and Shea suggest that education is most effective when initiated and highlighted during the prenatal period, briefly addressed before discharge after delivery, and revisited during postnatal care visits. Post-delivery is a time full of many distractions for a new mother, as she is recovering and focused on care her newborn, as a result, education about PPD during the busy hospitalization might not be an effective use of nursing time, and may reduce attention to important priorities such as infant feeding and maternal care as well as rest (2016, p. 6). Finally, nurses should be aware of local resources for the treatment of PPD and have materials r eady should their patient need them (AWHONN, 2015; Alderman, 2016). Offering printed resources may be a more effective intervention as this helps empower the individual, allowing more opportunities for control in their plan of care. Hadfield and Wittkowski found that women who felt as though decisions were made by health care professionals rather than themselves experienced greater distress than women who had voluntarily sought a referral (2017, p. 732). Recommendations for treatment of PPD are determined by the severity of the diagnosis, with both therapy and antidepressants as effective treatment options. Mild to moderate cases of PPD typically involve peer support, counseling, or psychotherapy. While moderate to severe cases may indicate both psychotherapy and antidepressant treatment (AWHONN, 2015). The current standard for PPD pharmaceutical treatment consists of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) which are approved for use with breastfeeding, however, some argue that the ability of SSRIs to prevent post-partum depression is also un clear (Alderman, 2016; Meltzer-Brody, S. et al., 2018, p.1060). There are new trials for PPD specific medications, with promising drugs such as Brexanolone, a rapid onset intramuscular injection, on the forefront. However, pharmaceutical treatment for PPD is not without its own barriers, as some women felt ashamed for not being able to cope on their own and stigmatized for taking medication (Hadfield Wittkowski, 2017, p. 732). Additional barriers to generalized treatment of PPD range from transportation and for care to fear of judgment from family and healthcare providers. Furthermore, preservation of self-image can prevent some women from seeking help, as they internalized the stigma surrounding PPD. Some mothers associated PPD with poor parenting, a label that was perceived to be worse than the label of depressed (Hadfield Wittkowski, 2017, p. 732).

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Instant Solutions for English Regents August 2017 Essay Samples in Easy to Follow Step by Step Detail

Instant Solutions for English Regents August 2017 Essay Samples in Easy to Follow Step by Step Detail Severe acne can cause a formation of large pimples that go deep in the epidermis. Torturing body ache is along with the despair of useless attempts to get food and unbearable exhaustion, which contributes to hallucinations. Find out more regarding the business and choose for yourself if pet grooming, senior care or whatever job you're interested in is really the most suitable career path for you. The hygiene is dependent upon various ailments. Scroll through the assignments to discover the exam you're searching for. The multiple-choice questions may involve numerous things to do to arrive at a right answer. In the same way, advertisements are no longer merely a source of information. Thus, it's the best choice to purchase from the stores immediately. To seem beautiful, you should be feeling fresh. 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The droid phones have lately become incredibly popular, thanks to people who continue in introducing new technologies for those. With this kind of a substantial number of droid phones to select from it's tricky to earn a choice. All About English Regents August 2017 Essay Sa mples To the contrary, the writing needs to be laconic, but clear. On the other hand, the chance to educate isn't available equally to all sections of a society. This can help you keep tabs on the variety of documents you use and it'll enable the man grading your essay see that you've fulfilled the demands of a DBQ. Adhere to this identical format as you compose the extra body paragraphs. Use factual info and base your response to each question on the particular document to which it is related, and don't forget to compose each answer using complete sentences. That number will just continue growing and will grow! For this exam, the amount of essays can fluctuate, based on the new requirements for each school year. What's Truly Going on with English Regents August 2017 Essay Samples Once you are all set to have things off the ground, your very best asset is going to be your own self-discipline. You see, money is vitally significant in the region which it works. You must fin d the right set up for your house and get it installed. A shadow box is a fantastic method to display larger dog-related items which will not match in a normal frame.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

The Physics Of Galileo ( 1564-1642 ) - 1348 Words

‘An object at rest stays at rest, and an object in motion stays in motion, with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.’ (Sir Isaac Newton- Law of Inertia) Before the early 17th century, scientists were convinced that an object (pushed across another surface), only came to a rest once the force/s behind it stopped working. Galileo (1564-1642) - a great Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher- realised this was not the case. He concluded that the loss of such an objects motion was caused not by the dissipation of its original energy, but rather due to the interaction of a counteracting force known as friction. Understanding how friction acts, and the factors that affect it has been a focal point of physics ever since. Forces and Friction Measured in Newtons and symbolised by ‘F’, a force, in its simplest terms, is a push or a pull - an interaction between one object and another that is responsible for changes in the motion, direction or shape of the object/s affected. The greater the force, the greater the impact it will have. Not all forces affect objects in the same way however. Non-contact forces are able to exert a push or a pull upon an object despite a physical separation. Examples included: gravity, magnetism, and electricity. Contact forces on the other hand, can only affect an object through direct contact, such as air resistance, applied force, and frictional force. As a contact force, frictionShow MoreRelatedPhysics 11373 Words   |  6 PagesGalileo Galilei Introduction It is no question that Galileo was an influential scientist in his time and still is today (picture located on page 6 from google.com). Though his most notable discoveries were in the field of astronomy, we cannot label him simply as an astronomer. He authored many important works including, Sidereal Messenger (also known as Starry Messenger), but unfortunately, due to the power of the Catholic church in his native Italy, his work in astronomy was widely rejected byRead MoreGalileo And The Scientific Revolution1549 Words   |  7 Pages Quick Facts Name Galileo Occupation Astronomer, Scientist Birth Date February 15, 1564 Death Date January 8, 1642 Did You Know? Galileo supported the Copernican theory, which supports a sun-centered solar system. Did You Know? Galileo was accused twice of heresy by the church for his beliefs. He remained under house arrest the remaining years of his life. Did You Know? Galileo devised his own telescope, in which he observed the moon and found Venus had phases like the moon, proving it rotatedRead MoreCopernican Heliocentrism Impact to Modern Science1010 Words   |  5 Pagescompiled regarding orbital movements and positioning are now regarded as scientific truths (Kuhn, 1957). i. Galileo Galilie (1564 - 1642) with the use of the telescope (which was unavailable to Copernicus) was able to substantiate Copernican’s system. This was achieved by his observations of the stars and transposing this observational data through the use of mathematics to support the physics. Second, he devised the beginnings of new mechanics and laid some foundations for Newtonian mechanics thatRead MoreResearh of Galileo Galilei Essay573 Words   |  3 PagesResearh of Galileo Galilei The Italian physicist was born is Pisa on 15 February 1564 (see appendix B). He was the first of seven children. Galileo was educated by a tutor and his father, a nobleman and well known for musical studies. At the age of 11 he was sent to a local monastery where he, like other children of noble people studied Greek, Latin, religion and music. Following his fathers wish, he continued his education, at the age of 17 he enrolled as a student of medicine at the UniversityRead MoreGalileo Galileis Contributions to Scientific Advancements634 Words   |  3 Pages Galileo was probably the most appreciable astronomer, mathematician and scientist of his time. In fact his work has been very essential in many scientific advances, even to this day. With things like improving the telescope and the discovery of the heliocentric orbit of Earth. Galileo had many other substantial discoveries that also had a great effect on astronomy. In the early seventeenth century,Galileo Galilei, an Italian physicist, mathemitician, astronomer, and philosopher, is known forRead MoreGalileo1113 Words   |  5 PagesGalileo Galilei Galileo Galilei was considered the central figure of the scientific revolution of the 17th century. His role in the history of science was a critical one. He revolutionized the way in which science was conducted, and performed experiments to test his ideas, which led him to be regarded as the father of experimental science. Galileo was born on February 15th, 1564 in Pisa, and was the oldest of seven children. His father, Vincenzo Galilei was a famous composer, lutenist, and musicRead MoreThe Most Significant Of The Scientific Theories Have Made Considerable Progression1372 Words   |  6 Pagesluminous ideologies, the world would be quite different than how we see it today. Downstream through the flow of time came Galileo Galilei in the sixteenth century, the brilliant Italian who changed the view of astronomy and mathematics. Finally, there is Isaac Newton, the Father of Modern Science. Born in 1642 C.E., he changed the whole world with his striking math, laws of physics, and astro nomical theories. These people, generations, and nations all completely helped influence the evolution of scientificRead More Galileo: The Father of Science Essay examples1798 Words   |  8 Pages Galileo Galileo was a teacher, astronomer, philosopher, and physicist and was known to be a major part of the scientific revolution. With all of his elaborate drawings and notes he has been referred to as the father of modern astronomy, father of modern physics, and as father of science. Galileos experimentation was an active process involved the investigating of causal relationships among variables. His studies in scientific experimentationRead MoreWhat Is Science and Where Did It Come From?928 Words   |  4 PagesThroughout the scientific revolution, the medieval scientific philosophy was abandoned in favor and improved methods proposed by different men. Finally, we are introduced to scientists of mathematicians, astronomers, and philosophers. Sir Francis Bacon, Galileo, Rene Descartes, and Isaac Newton are the famous people in the scientific method. The scientific revolution proves that science is a source for the growth of knowledge. The history of science manifests the chain of enhancements in technology andRead MoreGalileo Galilei And The Modern Experimental Method1445 Words   |  6 PagesGalileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy on February 15, 1564. â€Å"His father, Vincenzio Galilei, was a musician whose originality and polemic talents fomented a revolution uniting practice and theory in music much as Galileo was to unite them in science.†I Galileo is credited with establishing the modern experimental method in a time when most progress made by scientists and thinkers was based on hypotheses alone. He began the practice of testing scientific theories by preforming experiments and observing

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Technology During World War I - 1571 Words

Imagine standing in thick mud, surrounded by dirt walls. Artillery shells could be heard crashing into the ground as fellow soldiers were blown up in close proximity. Moaning from the wounded filled the air. Fear and panic were abundant as the soldiers employed methodical tasks they had learned in their training. A quick glance over the parapet showed the brutality of war, as this is the day-to-day life of a soldier in the trenches. During World War I new scientific know how allowed for the development and introduction of numerous types of weaponry for use in battle. Advancements of technology during World War I led to a higher number of casualties than what was otherwise possible. The technologies included guns, tanks, explosives, barbed wire, and poison gas. On the morning of June 28th, 1914, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, was shot and killed by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip. This action set off a chain of events that led to one of the most devastating conflicts in history. A variety of factors forced the war into play and the first one was Nationalism. Nationalism led people to make alliances with people of similar race or culture. Two big alliances emerged because of this: the Triple Entente—made up of Britain, Russia, France—and the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Italy (World War I). These alliances formed a complex web so when war struck, all of the nations were immediately involved. Nationalism alsoShow MoreRelatedTechnology Changed The Dynamics Of War During World War I1587 Words   |  7 PagesAdvances in technology changed the dynamics of war during World War I. WWI was the first extensive war in which all nations felt the effects of war whether through a social, political, or economic impact. through One of the major impacts of trench warfare was that it made it difficult for the Allied and Central Powers to secure a victory. New technology such as the machine gun brought massive death and casualties. Armies in all nations started to need a larger population of soldiers to fight becauseRead MoreEmergence of New Technology during the World War I939 Words   |  4 Pages(National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011). Marijuana has a long standing history in its use as hallucinogen. However, there have revolutions and the use of this herb as a form of medicine has been widely accepted over the world and there are several countries where the use of this herb is legal and yet there are some countries where the use is confined to prescription medication only. There is need therefore to look at the medicinal use of marijuana and the benefits thatRead MoreWarfare During World War I1472 Words   |  6 PagesCivil War and the start of World War I. Within those years numerous technological advancements took place. Many of those advancements directly impacted the warfare in the First World War. The Civil War, also referred to as the first modern war, gave way to an even more modernized style of warfare used during World War I. Much of this modernized technology of warfare had a great impact on how tactics and strategies were used throughout the First World War. Toward the beginning of the Civil War mostRead MoreThe Most Important Qualities That A Military Organization1116 Words   |  5 Pagesorganization should possess to innovate effectively during peacetime? The weary aspect of warfare in the World War I made it complicated to verify who the successful is or if there was really a winner. This is obvious that the remarkable circumstances encouraged the US and European powers to bring a tremendous change in their army units and obtain new equipment in order to achieve a comprehensive and sustainable victory in the context of wars. New technology and doctrine were the most important qualityRead MoreWwi : Technology And Weapons Of War1221 Words   |  5 Pagesbecame the popular image of World War 1 (â€Å"WWI: Technology and Weapons of War†). War leaders failing to adapt to new tactics and weaponry led to many needless deaths in this all-out battle. Technological advancements in chemistry, metallurgy and engineering made the war fa r more complex and deadly than the past conflicts (â€Å"WWI: Technology and Weapons of War†). The introduction of this complex weaponry from both sides involved in this gruesome combat made winning the war seem almost impossible. TheRead Moreâ€Å"The Greatest Generation†: A Study of World War II Technology800 Words   |  4 PagesGeneration†: A Study of World War II Technology To some, World War II may seem like a great war that happened a long time ago, a war where however great the innovations during the war were, they are much out of date now, and so they have no impact on today’s world. But to another, who understand the world and how it grows, realize that wherever a nation is, it is in that position because of its history. This means that without all of the improvements of technology during World War II, the world as we know itRead MoreThe United States And The World War II1537 Words   |  7 Pagesnot be the perfect country in the world, but it is one of the most victorious countries of today’s world. Our country’s huge history consist of a great amount of important and momentous events that have lead our country into the place we know now. As a country we have had our fair share or triumph crisis and everything in between. But overall the most important event in the history of the United States is the World War II, there is a lot of reason why World War II is one of the most important eventRead MoreA Brief Note On The World War I1327 Words   |  6 PagesSierra World War I With the start of the 19th century brought two major events to the Europeans. The French Revolution began in 1789 and held an impact on Europe for many decades until World War I began in 1914. WWI left a monumental spot on the European society, culture and diplomacy; this was a huge start to what defined Europe as a country compared to the rest of the world. Along with Europe there was also other countries who were taking affect during the time leading up to World War I. WhetherRead MoreIn The Modern Era, Technology Has Become The Driving Force1699 Words   |  7 Pages In the modern era, technology has become the driving force of the world and has led to many positive advancements, however when incorporating technological advancements into war, it can be said that technology has had more negative effects rather than positive ones. Technological advancements have had a negative effect on wars because the number of casualties increases, civilians are more susceptible to getting accidentally killed, and arms of mass destruction can easily fall into the wrong handsRead MoreWorld War II And The Field Of Nursing984 Words   |  4 PagesIn this research I studied World War II, different aspects of it and articles from this time. We studied four different topics, one was on the sciences and in the field of nursing. This article explained the care British nurses gave to victims of typhus during this war. Humanities was another topic, and it covered the history of this war and of Adolf Hitler. Social Sciences was another topic, and what education was like for music education during the time of World War II. The last topic was business

Macbeth - Tragedy Essay - 1351 Words

According to the classical view, tragedy should arouse feelings of pity and fear in the audience. Does Macbeth do this? Tragedy has most definitely influenced the viewers thoughts on Macbeth within this play. In Shakespeares Macbeth, the audience sees a gradual breakdown in the character of Macbeth himself, due to the tragic events that unfold during the play. This has a direct effect on the audiences views and thoughts of Macbeth, thus creating pity and fear within the audience. Macbeth, being a man and a human being himself, is in-clined to some forms of temptation, to which man himself has quite often succumbed. The guilt that Mac-beth experiences after the death of his beloved King Duncan also experienced in every humans†¦show more content†¦By Sinels death I know I am Thane of Clamis But how of Cawdor? The thane of Cawdor lives, A prosperous gentleman; and to be king Stands not within the prospect of beliefÂ… Macbeth [I.iii.70-74] The audience sees how Macbeth is introduced into taking over the throne of his great friend Duncan. This unleashes pity and fear within the audience, because they felt for a man succumbing to grievous temptation. The events in which took place after this increase our pity of Macbeth. The audience sees a grown, noble and mighty officer degraded into a pool of immense guilt. Macbeth was, shortly after the murdering incident, driven insane by the immense guilt produced by his withered conscience. The dagger that was used in the killing of King Duncan haunted him before the murder took place. This tragedy in the play gives us both fear of where the sword came from and pity for Macbeths character that had degraded to such a point that he has become paranoid. Is this a dagger which I see before me, The handle toward my hand? Come, let me clutch thee. I have thee not, and yet I see thee still. Art thou not, fatal vision, sensible To feeling as to sight? Or art thou but A dagger of mind, a false creation, Proceeding from the heat-oppressed brain? Â… [II.i.33-39] The events before the murder of Duncan, which include Macbeths fear of killing Duncan, the timing at-which it will take place; all of which these things made the audience fearful. Macbeth seemed nervous in aShow MoreRelatedIs Macbeth a Tragedy?2186 Words   |  9 PagesA tragedy is often thought of as a sad, pitiful event. The factors used to label an event as tragic are the consequences and the lasting effects. For example, the consequences of one or more deaths can be seen as a tragedy. And tragedies are often remembered long after the event, clearly impacting the future for those involved. Many people interpret events such as a natural disaster, a death of a loved one, or a permanent disability as tragic. However, others say that this definition of a tragedyRead MoreAnalysis Of The Tragedy Of Macbeth1207 Words   |  5 Pages The ‘Tragedy of Macbeth’ (also known as ‘Macbeth’) is a play written by William Shakespeare and it was first performed in 1606. This play presents plenty of themes through the action and dialogue throughout the play. Although the play is universally and most commonly referred to as the dark tragedy presented by Shakespeare. The most common themes that were introduced to the audience tend to be femininity versus masculinity, pride and honor, the role of supernatural, temptation and evil and a lotRead MoreManhood in The Tragedy of Macbeth1133 Words   |  5 PagesIn Shakespeare’s Macbeth, he uses the theme of manhood to create motives for characters to act like a man. This is seen in many occurrences in Macbeth where characters try to act like men for certain reasons. Characters that apply this action are Macbeth, the first murderer, Macduff, and Young Siward. These actions are seen throughout the play, and play a key role in the development of the performance. Macbeth tells himself to act like a man in the following lines: â€Å"Prithee, peace! / I dare doRead More Macbeth - Tragedy Essay1224 Words   |  5 Pageshistories to tragedies. Perhaps one of his most famous in the tragedy genre is Macbeth. Though Shakespeare can be considered as a scholar in the sense that he was both a renowned and prolific playwright, look back a few hundred years to find Aristotle, one of the most famous scholars and philosophers of all time. In his treatise titled Poetics, he defends poetry against criticism as well as sets standards for tragedies in quot;The Nature of Tragedy,quot; a section of the Poetics. Is Macbeth fit to beRead More Macbeth - Tragedy Essay1313 Words   |  6 Pagesthe classical view, tragedy should arouse feelings of pity and fear in the audience. Does Macbeth do this? Tragedy has most definitely influenced the viewer’s thoughts on Macbeth within this play. In Shakespeare’s Macbeth, the audience sees a gradual breakdown in the character of Macbeth himself, due to the tragic events that unfold during the play. This has a direct effect on the audience’s views and thoughts of Macbeth, thus creating pity and fear within the audience. Macbeth, being a man and aRead MoreThe Tragedy of Macbeth Essay542 Words   |  3 PagesThe Tragedy of Macbeth, written by William Shakespeare in 1604, portrays women in a variety of strengths. In Elizabethan society, women were considered the ‘weaker sex’ but in many of his plays Shakespeare appears to question this patriarchal society. Shakespeare wrote ‘ Macbeth’ intending to flatter King James I, the ruler in this era. James I had very strong opinions regarding women and, particularly, witches. He saw Women as inferior and expected them to be housewives and mothers. Shake speareRead MoreAristotelian Tragedy Macbeth Essays611 Words   |  3 PagesAristotelian Tragedy: Macbeth Aristotle is known widely for developing his ideas on tragedy. He recorded these ideas in his Poetics in which he comments on the plot, purpose, and effect that a true tragedy must have. The structure of these tragedies has been an example for many writers including Shakespeare himself. Many of Shakespeare’s plays follow Aristotelian ideas of tragedy, for instance Macbeth does a decent job in shadowing Aristotle’s model. Aristotle describes one of the most importantRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Macbeth By William Shakespeare1052 Words   |  5 PagesEnglish II 2 October, 2015 â€Å"Tragedy† of Macbeth Macbeth, a play written by one of the most influential English writers of all time William Shakespeare. It was created to be a Shakespearean tragedy. A tragedy as Aristotle defines it as: â€Å"Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude †¦. through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions† (Aristotle: Poetics). What this is saying for a tragedy is that it should have the audienceRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Macbeth By William Shakespeare1497 Words   |  6 PagesShakespeare effectively explores and follows the framework of the tragedy, Macbeth; a tale of systematic suffering, which foreshadows and imminently leads to the death of a great man. Essentially, it is Macbeth’s flaw – his growing ambition – which leads to these harsh repercussions. Shakespeare demonstrates his tragedy, through Aristotle’s elements and definition of tragedy, which ultimately concerns the rever sal of good fortune to bad. 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Moral Values free essay sample

Moral rights in Canadian copyright law are protected under the Copyright Act of Canada and include an authors right to attribution, integrity and association of a work. Moral rights are to be distinguished from economic rights; moral rights essentially being derived from the reflection of the author’s personality in his or her work, whereas economic rights grant an author the ability to benefit economically from their work. An author of a work retains moral rights for the length of the copyright, even if the copyright has been assigned or licensed to another party. b Amending our Terms of Use: Please comment on a proposed amendment regarding undisclosed paid editing. close Moral rights in Canadian copyright law From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Moral rights in Canadian copyright law are protected under the Copyright Act of Canada and include an authors right to attribution, integrity and association of a work. Moral rights are to be distinguished from economic rights; moral rights essentially being derived from the reflection of the author’s personality in his or her work, whereas economic rights grant an author the ability to benefit economically from their work. An author of a work retains moral rights for the length of the copyright, even if the copyright has been assigned or licensed to another party. Moral rights cannot be assigned or licensed, but can be waived by contract. [1] Contents 1 History 2 Statutory provisions 2. 1 S14. 1, S14. 2, S17. 1, and S17. 2 2. 2 S28. 1 and S28. 2 2. 3 S34(2) 2. 4 Berne Convention 3 Canadian case law 3. 1 Theberge v. Galerie dArt du Petit Champlain Inc. 3. 2 Snow v. the Eaton Centre Ltd. et al. 4 American moral rights 4. 1 Gilliam v. American Broadcasting Companies 5 Academic commentary 6 See also 7 References History Moral rights in Canada can be traced back to a 1915 amendment of the Criminal Code. The amendment created a criminal offence to change a copyrighted dramatic, operatic or musical work that was to be publicly performed for profit or to suppress its title or authorship without the author’s consent. [2] Canada also legislated moral rights into the Copyright Act in 1931, stemming from a revision of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works in 1928. The provision was further clarified and expanded in 1988. In 2012, the Copyright Modernization Act added moral rights for aural and sound recorded performances. [3] Statutory provisions The relevant provisions of the Copyright Act that deal with moral rights are:[4] S14. 1, S14. 2, S17. 1, and S17. 2 Section 14. 1 defines moral rights as the authors right to the integrity of the work, the authors right to create the work under his or her own name, pseudonym or anonymously (known as the right of attribution). Section 14. 1 also lays out that moral rights can be waived in whole or in part, but cannot be transferred or waived using an assignment or license. Section 14. 2 states that moral rights last the length of the term of copyright and upon the authors death the rights do pass to those upon whom the work was bequeathed. [5] Section 17. 1 and 17. 2 provide the same rights and definitions as 14. 1 and 14. 2, but in relation to live aural performances and sound recordings. [6] S28. 1 and S28. 2 Section 28. 1 and Section 28. 2 lay out the definition of moral rights infringement. Infringement includes any act or omission that is contrary to the moral rights of the author in general. The integrity of the work is infringed if it is to the prejudice of the honour or reputation of the author; distorted, mutilated or otherwise modified; or used in association with a product, service, cause or institution (known as the right of association). It is not an infringement of the moral work to physically change the location of the work or to restore or preserve the work in good faith. [7] S34(2) Section 34(2) lays out the civil remedies for moral rights infringement and includes: all remedies by way of injunction, damages, accounts, delivery up and otherwise that are or may be conferred by law for the infringement of a right. [8] Berne Convention Article 6bis of the Berne Convention, to which Canada is a party, grants moral rights, which are codified similar to the Canadian Copyright Act above. There are rights to authorship, integrity of the work, the moral rights persist as long as the economic rights to copyright, and the rights can pass on to the after death of the author if the ratifying state permits. Remedies are also governed by the ratifying state. [9] Canadian case law There has been very little Canadian case law on the subject of moral rights and therefore many of the interpretations of the provisions in the act have yet to be determined. Two cases are discussed below. Theberge speaks to the difference between economic and moral rights, and Snow lays out a test to determine whether prejudice to the honour or reputation of the author has occurred. Theberge v. Galerie dArt du Petit Champlain Inc. Main article: Theberge v. Galerie dArt du Petit Champlain Inc. In Theberge, a 2002 decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, the plaintiff was an artist who sold paintings that were printed on poster paper. The defendant bought one of the posters and, using a specialized process, transferred the physical ink from the poster to a canvas. The main question in the case was whether there was copyright infringement. Justice Ian Binnie writing for the majority stated that there was a distinction between economic and moral rights: The economic rights are based on a conception of artistic and literary works essentially as articles of commerce. Whereas moral rights are derived from the civil law tradition: They treat the artists oeuvre as an extension of his or her personality, possessing a dignity which is deserving of protection. They focus on the artists right (which by s. 14. 1(2) is not assignable, though it may be waived) to protect throughout the duration of the economic rights (even where these have been assigned elsewhere) both the integrity of the work and his or her authorship of it (or anonymity, as the author wishes). Justice Binnie went on to say that moral rights are infringed if the work is modified to the prejudice of the honour or reputation of the author [s. 28. 2(1)]. The logical implication from this provision is that modifications to the work that do not prejudice the honour or reputation of the author are within the rights of the copyright owner. Binnie concluded that the plaintiff in this case was attempting to pass off an economic right as a moral right. That is, the plaintiff was attempting to prevent the defendants from accessing a different market (economic incentive) by arguing that they were infringing his moral rights. Therefore, the majority of the Supreme Court of Canada held in favour of the defendant. Justice Charles Gonthier in dissent held that the court not only needed to consider the infringement of moral rights but also the change in the medium of the painting [prohibited by section 3. (1)] and the change in the physical structure of the work [prohibited by section 28. 2(3)]. [10] Snow v. the Eaton Centre Ltd. et al. Main article: Snow v. The Eaton Centre Ltd. In Snow, a 1982 case at the Ontario High Court of Justice, the defendant had purchased a sculpture of 60 geese that they placed inside their shopping centre. During their Christmas celebration the defendant tried to attach ribbons to the necks of the geese. The plaintiff alleged that the addition of the ribbons modified his work in a manner prejudicial to his honour or reputation. Justice OBrien held that moral rights give the plaintiff greater rights than rights based on libel or slander and that moral rights are not unconstitutional. He also stated that prejudice is measured subjectively by the author and found for the plaintiff in this case: I believe the words prejudicial to his honour or reputation in s. 12(7) involve a certain subjective element or judgment on the part of the author so long as it is reasonably arrived at. [Note s. 12(7) refers to previous Copyright Act] Therefore the test for the subjective prejudice to the honour or reputation of the author is to be measured by the author, so long as it is reasonably arrived at. [11] American moral rights See also: Moral_rights#In_the_United_States Under American law, moral rights are not specifically recognized. However, as the following case illustrates moral rights can be upheld using economic principles. Gilliam v. American Broadcasting Companies Main article: Gilliam v. American Broadcasting In Gilliam, a 1976 decision of the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, the BBC had agreed to allow ABC to broadcast 6 Monty Python episodes. The only rights that the agreement spoke to with respect to editing were trivial changes such as time. ABC ended up editing a significant portion of the episodes, amounting to 24 minutes cut from the original 90 minutes. At trial, the injunction sought by the plaintiffs was denied, and they appealed. The Second Circuit Court of Appeal recognized that this was an issue of moral rights, which they defined as the right of the author to have their work attributed to them in the form that they created it. Nonetheless, American law does not explicitly recognize moral rights and favours economic rights over personal rights of the author. The court got around this by saying that: American copyright law cannot be reconciled with inability of artists to obtain relief for mutilation or misrepresentation of their work to public on which artists are financially dependent. Furthermore, other legal avenues such as misrepresentation in contract law or the tort of unfair competition can provide protection against mutilation. The court found that mutilation or misrepresentation is a valid cause of action under section 43(a) of the Lanham Act, a federal act pertaining to unfair competition. The court found that the editing done by ABC had misrepresented the work of the plaintiffs and therefore found for the plaintiffs. It is sufficient to violate Lanham Act, which has been invoked to prevent misrepresentations that may injure plaintiffs business or personal reputation even when no registered trademark is concerned, that a representation of a product, although technically true, creates a false impression of the products origin Plaintiffs, who alleged that editing done for television broadcast of programs based on their scripts mutilated original work, stated valid cause of action under the Lanham Act against television network for distortion of plaintiffs work caused by editing. Gilliam exemplifies that even if moral rights are not explicitly recognized they can be protected under different legal causes of action. [12] Academic commentary Academic commentary on moral rights differs. One perspective holds that moral rights allow an author to maintain and promote his or her creativity. [13] This stems out of a notion that an author is intimately tied with his or her work. Another perspective holds that allowing authors to protect their artwork may in fact damage artistic creation by preventing modification or in some case destruction of an artwork. [14] Which position is correct is unclear, however, it is a fact that there is only a small amount of case law concerning moral rights. Furthermore, the statutory language around moral rights is ambiguous, and it is conceivable that moral rights may come into contention with fair dealings provisions, in which case a balancing of an author’s moral rights and a user’s fair dealing rights is necessary.